In a recent study published by Mandotori, D. 2021; Vitamin K2 has a dual role in Bone Loss and Vascular Calcification. Vitamin K2 deficiency is proving to be responsible for the "calcium paradox" phenomenon, characterized by low calcium deposition in the bone.
The study published by Refitt, D.M. 2003; Orthosilicic acid stimulates collagen synthesis and osteoblastic differentiation. Gene expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin increased significantly following treatment. The inherent silicon deficiency in animals leads to bone defects and plays an important role in the lack of bone metabolism, bone remolding and repair.
The study by Zhou, H. 2019; concluded that Orthosilicic Acid "Accelerates Bone Formation" in Osteoblast-like cells through P13K-AKt-MTOR pathways. Numerous animal experiments have shown that an appropriate increase in the intake of silicon that's highly absorbed is beneficial to enhancing bone density.
According to a study published by Neuenschwander, H.M. 2019; horses are unable to maintain enough Hyaluronic Acid (HA) in the Synovial Fluid for proper lubrication of their joints.
Horses given Hyaluronic Acid had a "Significant Increase" in preserving cartilage and an increase in joint circumference with better overall baseline values in a study by Vet Sci, November 2019.